Early germline blastomeres of C elegans contain ZNFX-1, ZSP1, and WAGO-4, which localize to germ granules (P granules). These proteins detach from P granules later in germline development, forming a distinct liquid-like condensate called the Z-granule. Z-granules assemble into organized tri-condensate assemblages with P-granules and Mutator foci in adult germ cells, termed PZM granules (29769721, 33438773).
Formation, Composition & dynamics (Assembly and disassembly)
Z-granules enlarge abnormally in size in the absence of ZSP-1, fail to segregate with germline blastomeres throughout development, and lose their liquid-like properties (33438773).
Wan G, Fields BD, Spracklin G, Shukla A, Phillips CM, Kennedy S. Spatiotemporal regulation of liquid-like condensates in epigenetic inheritance. Nature. 2018 May;557(7707):679-683. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0132-0. Epub 2018 May 16. PMID: 29769721; PMCID: PMC6479227.
Wan G, Bajaj L, Fields B, Dodson AE, Pagano D, Fei Y, Kennedy S. ZSP-1 is a Z granule surface protein required for Z granule fluidity and germline immortality in Caenorhabditis elegans. EMBO J. 2021 Feb 1;40(3):e105612. doi: 10.15252/embj.2020105612. Epub 2021 Jan 13. PMID: 33438773; PMCID: PMC7849174.